There is no accounting affirmation which can acquaint us absolutely who has coined the byword educational technology. Altered educationists, scientists and philosophers at altered time intervals accept put forwarded altered definitions of Educational Technology. Educational technology is a able and chip action involving people, procedure, ideas, devices, and organization, breadth technology from altered fields of science is adopted as per the charge and claim of apprenticeship for implementing, evaluating, and managing solutions to those problems circuitous in all aspects of beastly learning.
Educational technology, broadly speaking, has anesthetized through 5 stages.
The aboriginal date of educational technology is accompanying with the use of aids like charts, maps, symbols, models, specimens and accurate materials. The appellation educational technology was acclimated as synonyms to acoustic aids.
The additional date of educational technology is associated with the ‘electronic revolution’ with the addition and enactment of adult accouterments and software. Use of assorted acoustic aids like projector, abracadabra lanterns, tape-recorder, radio and television brought a advocate change in the educational scenario. Accordingly, educational technology abstraction was taken in agreement of these adult instruments and equipments for able presentation of advisory materials.
The third date of educational technology is affiliated with the development of accumulation media which in about-face led to ‘communication revolution’ for advisory purposes. Computer-assisted Apprenticeship (CAI) acclimated for apprenticeship aback 1950s aswell became accepted during this era.
The fourth date of educational technology is apparent by the abundant action of instruction. The apparatus of programmed acquirements and programmed apprenticeship provided a new ambit to educational technology. A arrangement of self-learning based on self-instructional abstracts and teaching machines emerged.
The latest abstraction of educational technology is afflicted by the abstraction of arrangement engineering or arrangement admission which focuses on accent laboratories, teaching machines, programmed instruction, multimedia technologies and the use of the computer in instruction. According to it, educational technology is a analytical way of designing, accustomed out and evaluating the absolute action of teaching and acquirements in agreement of specific objectives based on research.
Educational technology during the Rock Age, the Brownish Age, and the Adamant Age
Educational technology, admitting the ambiguity of the agent of the term, can be traced aback to the time of the three-age arrangement periodization of beastly prehistory; namely the Rock Age, the Brownish Age, and the Adamant Age.
Duringthe Rock Age, agitation of blaze by abrading stones, accomplish of assorted handmade weapon and accoutrement from stones and accouterment convenance were some of the simple abstruse developments of absolute importance. A atom of Rock Age humans developed ocean-worthy outrigger canoe address technology to drift from one abode to addition beyond the Ocean, by which they developed their aboriginal breezy apprenticeship of ability of the ocean currents, acclimate conditions, sailing practice, astronavigation, and brilliant maps. During the afterwards Rock Age aeon (Neolithic period),for agronomical practice, able rock accoutrement were fabricated from a array of harder rocks abundantly by digging underground tunnels, which can be advised as the aboriginal accomplish in mining technology. The able axes were so able that even afterwards actualization of brownish and iron; humans acclimated it for allowance backwoods and the enactment of crop farming.
Although Rock Age cultures larboard no accounting records, but archaeological evidences accepted their about-face from drifting activity to agronomical settlement. Age-old accoutrement conserved in altered museums, cavern paintings like Altamira Cavern in Spain, and added aged art, such as the Venus of Willendorf, Mother Goddess from Laussel, France etc. are some of the evidences in favour of their cultures.
Neolithic Anarchy of Rock Age resulted into the actualization of Brownish Age with development of agriculture, beastly domestication, and the acceptance of abiding settlements. For these practices Brownish Age humans added developed metal smelting, with chestnut and afterwards bronze, an admixture of tin and copper, getting the abstracts of their choice.
The Adamant Age humans replaced brownish and developed the ability of adamant admixture technology to lower the amount of active aback adamant accoutrement were stronger and cheaper than brownish equivalents. In abounding Eurasian cultures, the Adamant Age was the endure aeon afore the development of accounting scripts.
Educational technology during the aeon of Age-old civilizations
According to Paul Saettler, 2004, Educational technology can be traced aback to the time if affiliated priests alike bodies of ability and age-old cultures invented pictographs or assurance autograph to almanac and address information. In every date of beastly civilization, one can acquisition an advisory address or set of procedures advised to apparatus a accurate ability which were aswell accurate by amount of investigations and evidences. The added avant-garde the culture, the added circuitous became the technology of apprenticeship advised to reflect accurate agency of alone and amusing behaviour advised to run an accomplished society. Over centuries, anniversary cogent about-face in educational values, goals or objectives led to assorted technologies of instruction.
The greatest advances in technology and engineering came with the acceleration of the age-old civilizations. These advances angry and accomplished added societies in the apple to accept new agency of active and governance.
The Indus Basin Acculturation was an aboriginal Brownish Age acculturation which was amid in the northwestern arena of the Indian Subcontinent. The acculturation was primarily flourished about the Indus River basin of the Indus and the Punjab region, extending upto the Ghaggar-Hakra River basin and the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, (most of the allotment is beneath today’s Pakistan and the western states of modern-day India as able-bodied as some allotment of the acculturation extending upto southeastern Afghanistan, and the easternmost allotment of Balochistan, Iran).
There is a continued appellation altercation to be abiding about the accent that the Harappan humans spoke. It is affected that their autograph was at atomic seems to be or a pictographic script. The Software appears to accept had about 400 basal signs, with lots of variations. Humans address their Software with the administration about from appropriate to left. A lot of of the autograph was begin on seals and sealings which were apparently acclimated in barter and official & authoritative work.
Harappan humans had the ability of the barometer accoutrement of length, mass, and time. They were the aboriginal in the apple to advance a arrangement of compatible weights and measures.
In a abstraction agitated out by P. N. Rao et al. in 2009, appear in Science, computer scientists begin that the Indus script’s arrangement is afterpiece to that of announced words, which accurate the proposed antecedent that it codes for an as-yet-unknown language.
According to the Chinese Civilization, some of the aloft techno-offerings from China cover paper, aboriginal seismological detectors, toilet paper, matches, adamant plough, the multi-tube berry drill, the abeyance bridge, the wheelbarrow, the parachute, accustomed gas as fuel, the alluring compass, the raised-relief map, the bang furnace, the propeller, the crossbow, the South Pointing Chariot, and gun powder. With the ad-lib of cardboard they accept accustomed their aboriginal footfall appear developments of educational technology by added culturing altered handmade articles of cardboard as agency of beheld aids.
Ancient Egyptian accent was at one point one of the longest actual and acclimated languages in the world. Their Software was fabricated up of pictures of the absolute things like birds, animals, altered tools, etc. These pictures are bargain alleged hieroglyph. Their accent was fabricated up of aloft 500 hieroglyphs which are accepted as hieroglyphics. On the rock monuments or tombs which were apparent and rescued closing on provides the affirmation of actuality of abounding forms of aesthetic autography in age-old Egypt.
Educational technology during Medieval and Avant-garde Period
Paper and the lurid papermaking action which was developed in China during the aboriginal 2nd aeon AD, was agitated to the Middle East and was advance to Mediterranean by the Muslim conquests. Evidences abutment that a cardboard comminute was aswell accustomed in Sicily in the 12th century. The analysis of spinning caster added the abundance of cilia authoritative action to a abundant admeasurement and if Lynn White added the spinning caster with accretion accumulation of rags, this led to the assembly of bargain paper, which was a prime agency in the development of columnist technology.
The apparatus of the columnist columnist was taken abode in about 1450 AD, by Johannes Gutenburg, a German inventor. The apparatus of columnist columnist was a prime adorning agency in the history of educational technology to back the apprenticeship as per the charge of the circuitous and advanced-technology able society.
In the pre-industrial phases, while industry was artlessly the handwork at artisan level, the advisory processes were relied heavily aloft simple things like the slate, the horn book, the blackboard, and chalk. It was bound to a alone argument book with a few illustrations. Educational technology was advised alike to simple aids like archive and pictures.
The year 1873 may be advised a battleground in the aboriginal history of technology of apprenticeship or acoustic education. An exhibition was captivated in Vienna at all-embracing akin in which an American academy won the account of the educators for the exhibition of maps, charts, textbooks and added equipments.
Maria Montessori (1870-1952), internationally acclaimed adolescent drillmaster and the artist of Montessori Method exerted a activating appulse on educational technology through her development of graded abstracts advised to accommodate for the able sequencing of accountable amount for anniversary alone learner. Avant-garde educational technology suggests abounding addendum of Montessori’s abstraction of able adolescent centered environment.
In1833, Charles Babbage’s architecture of a accepted purpose accretion accessory laid the foundation of the avant-garde computer and in 1943, the aboriginal accretion apparatus as per hi architecture was complete by All-embracing Business Machines Corporation in USA. The Computer Assisted apprenticeship (CAI) in which the computer functions about as a babysitter as able-bodied as the Talking Type biographer was developed by O.K. Moore in 1966. Aback 1974, computers are interestingly acclimated in apprenticeship in schools, colleges and universities.
In the alpha of the 19th century, there were noteworthy changes in the acreage of education. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), appropriate from its alpha of academy broadcasts in 1920 had maintained accelerated clip in authoritative complete addition to academic education. In the USA, by 1952, 20 states had the accouterment for educational broadcasting. Parallel to this time about 98% of the schools in United Kingdom were able with radios and there were approved circadian programmes.
Sidney L. Pressey, a analyst of Ohio accompaniment university developed a self-teaching apparatus alleged ‘Drum Tutor’ in 1920. Professor Skinner, however, in his acclaimed commodity ‘Science of Acquirements and art of Teaching’ appear in 1945 pleaded for the appliance of the ability acquired from behavioral attitude to classroom procedures and appropriate automatic teaching accessories as agency of accomplishing so.
Although the aboriginal applied use of Approved television broadcasts was in Germany in 1929 and in 1936 the Olympic Games in Berlin were broadcasted through television stations in Berlin, Open ambit television began to be acclimated primarily for broadcasting programmes for ball in 1950. Aback 1960, television is acclimated for educational purposes.
In 1950, Brynmor, in England, acclimated educational abstruse accomplish for the aboriginal time. It is to be cared that in 1960, as a aftereffect of automated anarchy in America and Russia, added countries aswell started advanced in the filed of educational technology. In this way, the alpha of educational technology took abode in 1960 from America and Russia and now it has accomplished England, Europe and India.
During the time of about 1950s, new technocracy was axis it allure to educations if there was a abrupt curtailment of agents in America and accordingly an burning charge of educational technology was felt. Dr. Alvin C. Eurich and a little afterwards his associate, Dr. Alexander J. Stoddard alien accumulation assembly technology in America.
Team teaching had its agent in America in the mid of 1950′s and was aboriginal started in the year 1955 at Harvard University as a allotment of internship plan.
In the year 1956, Benjamin Bloom from USA alien the anatomy of educational objectives through his publication, “The Anatomy of Educational Objectives, The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook I: Cognitive Domain”.
In 1961, Micro teaching address was aboriginal adopted by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers at Stanford University in USA.
Electronics is the capital technology getting developed in the alpha of 21st century. Broadband Internet admission became accepted and active about all the important offices and educational places and even in accepted places in developed countries with the advantage of abutting home computers with music libraries and adaptable phones.
Today’s classroom is added acceptable to be a technology lab, a allowance with rows of acceptance application internet affiliated or Wi-Fi enabled laptops, palmtops, notepad, or conceivably acceptance are accessory a video conferencing or basic classroom or may accept been alert to a podcast or demography in a video lecture. Accelerated abstruse changes in the acreage of educational accept created new agency to advise and to learn. Abstruse changes aswell motivated the agents to admission a array of advice on a all-around calibration via the Internet, to enhance their acquaint as able-bodied as to accomplish them competent able in their breadth of concern. At the aforementioned time, acceptance can advance all-inclusive assets of the Internet to adorn their acquirements acquaintance to cope up with alteration trend of the society. Now a canicule acceptance as able-bodied agents are accessory seminars, conferences, workshops at civic and all-embracing akin by application the multimedia techno-resources like PowerPoint and even they accompany a array of important courses of their best in ambit approach via online acquirements ways. Online acquirements ability has opened absolute amount of doors of opportunities for today’s abecedarian to accomplish their activity happier than anytime before.